Scientists from the Scripps Research Institute in the United States described the details of antibody recognition and neutralization of HIV, revealed a major weakness of the HIV virus, and provided a new target for HIV vaccine development. Related research was published recently in the online edition of Science.

In this study, an antibody called PGT 128 was very effective in neutralizing HIV. Using X-ray crystallography, the researchers determined the structure of PGT 128. With these structural data, by changing the HIV target site, it can be observed that PGT 128 functions by partially binding to HIV surface polysaccharides. Polysaccharides usually cover the surface of HIV, protect it from attacks by the immune system. However, PGT 128 is able to bind two similar polysaccharides and simultaneously contact the remaining polysaccharides. This shows that the PGT 128 epitope can easily enter HIV.

Dennis Burton, the corresponding author of the paper, said that PGT 128 has shown a good target for us to develop HIV vaccines. (Science Network Ren Chunxiao / Compilation)

Related instruments and methods: electron microscope

Completor: Dennis Burton Research Group Ian Wilson Research Group

Laboratory: Department of Molecular Biology, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Department of Chemistry, Physiology and Chemistry Department of Scripps Research Institute of the United States, Lagun Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom, Cornell University Medical College of the United States, Rockinics Pharmaceuticals, NIH, National Institute of Allergy and Immune Diseases, NIH, Imperial College London, UK

Tea and coffee are two drinks of the largest consumption in the world. Coffee is irreplaceable in the lives of westerners, whether it is in schools, companies or shopping arcade, people carry coffee and find pleasure in it. However, tea is not only a drink in Chinese people`s life, but also carries human emotions and culture. Tea and coffee, which have different connotation and history, are representative of the differences between Chinese and Western culture.    


The species and brewing methods of tea and coffee exists differences, too. To brew coffee, there are strict requirements from grinding coffee beans to implements as well as water temperature proportion. The brew will taste strong and aromatic.


Tea needs more complex process than coffee to brew. There are several species of tea including green tea, bohea, white tea, oolong tea, jasmine tea. Each type of tea processing is not the same. The Tea Set is also rich in variety. Different tea accompanied by different tea things so as to better reflect the flavor of the tea.

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